Do you train calves? Tag someone who doesn’t ⠀ .⠀ Via -⠀ Muscles: 3 main muscle…

Do you train calves? Tag someone who doesn’t ??⠀
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Via @smurray_32⠀
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Muscles: 3 main muscles, the gastrocnemius (medial & lateral) & the soleus. The soleus is considered the BIGGEST of the 3 calf muscles (Fukunaga et al 1992) followed by the lateral head of gastrocnemius & finally the medial head of gastrocnemius being the smallest (Bamman et al 2000, Morse et al 2005)⠀
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Muscle fibres: Both the gastrocnemius & soleus display predominantly type I muscle fibres (44 – 76% &. 70 – 96% respectively) (Dahmane et al 2005, 2006, Keh-Evans et al 2010, Johnson et al 1973, Edgerton et al 1975, Coggan et al 1992) suggesting that training with lighter loads & slower speeds be best for hypertrophy. This is a possible reason why the calves may be a “stubborn” body part to grow as type 2 muscle fibres tend to have a greater hypertrophic potential to type 1 (Fry 2004)⠀
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Best exercises: At least 1 standing & 1 seated as the (a) gastrocnemius has shown to be maximized during standing & bent over (donkey) calf raises, with (b) soleus most active during seated raises (Boeckh-Behrens & Buskies 2000, Miyamoto et al 2003 Cresswell et al 1995, Reid et al 2011, Hebert-Losier et al 2012, Tamaki et al 1996)⠀
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Volume & frequency: In order to maximise calf hypertrophy, a frequency of 2-3x per week consisting of ~70 reps per session utilising PERFECT technique, potentially split into heavier/lighter days i.e. Daily undulating periodisation seems best (Schoenfeld et al 2016, Wernbom et al 2007)⠀
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Practical implications: Train your calves with the SAME amount of effort/consistency as any other muscle ideally implementing a minimum of 1 standing & 1 seated exercise, performed 2-3x per week with mostly light weight & higher reps however with a potential 1 of your 2-3 days being a heavier day oriented around higher weight & lower reps⠀
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