Treating COVID-19 headaches: Medication, natural options, and more – Medical News Today

A headache is a common symptom of COVID-19, particularly when the disease is due to the Omicron variant of the coronavirus. Headaches may occur as a primary symptom of COVID-19 or as a secondary symptom due to factors such as dehydration, sleep deprivation, or lying in bed for extended periods.
However, there are many possible causes of a headache, including stress and withdrawal from caffeine. People can often treat a headache at home using medical treatments, home remedies, or both. Occasionally, a headache will be a medical emergency, and a person will need medical care.
In this article, we provide an overview of COVID-19 and headaches, including the association between headaches and long COVID. We also discuss the outlook for people with COVID-19-related headaches, list some other possible causes of headaches, and offer advice on when to see a doctor.
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A headache is a common symptom of COVID-19. According to a 2021 review, estimates of the number of people with COVID-19 who experience headaches as a symptom of the disease range widely from 10% to 70%. In most cases, the headaches are tension-type headaches, although about 25% of people present with migraine-like symptoms.
The likelihood of experiencing a headache as a symptom of COVID-19 may also depend partly on the variant of the coronavirus causing it. Preliminary research suggests that a headache is one of the most common symptoms that people with the Omicron variant of the virus experience.
A 2021 review notes that having a headache during a coronavirus infection is associated with a reduced risk of dying from COVID-19. However, the cause of this correlation remains unclear.
COVID-19 is a relatively new disease, and doctors have not yet developed a specific treatment for the headaches it can cause. Instead, people must rely on standard headache remedies. The exact treatment will depend on the type of headache they experience.
Most COVID-19 headaches are tension-type headaches. These headaches occur when muscular pain in the neck or shoulders radiates to the head. Pain medications can help ease muscular pain and headache pain.
Some medications that may relieve the symptoms include:
Some people develop migraine headaches during or following coronavirus infection. Migraine is a neurological condition that typically causes a moderate to severe headache on one side of the head.
Other possible symptoms of migraine include:
As with tension headaches, migraine headaches may respond to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as naproxen, ibuprofen, and aspirin.
If the above drugs do not work, a doctor may prescribe one or more of the following medications:
Preventive treatments can help reduce the frequency of migraine headaches. Some options include:
One of the most effective natural treatments for COVID-19-related headaches is identifying and avoiding potential triggers. Some common headache triggers during coronavirus infection include:
Tips to help prevent headache triggers include:
Some natural headache remedies include:
A headache is a common symptom of long COVID. Researchers do not yet understand why this is the case.
There is no specific treatment for long COVID or for the headaches it can cause. The same treatments that people use for other headaches may help alleviate long COVID headache pain. However, they may not stop the headaches from coming back.
People with long COVID and headaches should talk with a doctor about longer term treatment options, as well as the possibility of participating in clinical trials.
Headaches are very common and do not necessarily indicate that a person has COVID-19. Even when a person with COVID-19 develops a headache, the disease may not be the cause.
In some cases, the headache may be a secondary symptom because, for instance, lying in bed has triggered a tension headache. In other cases, the headache may be completely unrelated to the coronavirus infection.
Although they are painful, most headaches are harmless and go away on their own. Examples include:
However, some headaches can signal a medical emergency. A headache with the following characteristics may signal a serious underlying medical condition, such as meningitis or stroke:
Most headaches go away on their own or following appropriate home treatment. People who have COVID-19-related headaches may find that the headaches become less severe or less frequent once their COVID-19 symptoms subside.
However, long COVID is common, especially among older COVID-19 survivors.
In one 2021 study, 57% of 273,618 COVID-19 survivors experienced at least one long COVID symptom up to 6 months after the initial infection. Among these individuals, 8.67% had a headache 1–180 days after COVID-19, and 4.63% had a headache 90–180 days after COVID-19.
The above data suggest that although the frequency of COVID-19-related headaches typically declines with time, some people may continue to experience headaches even 6 months after the infection.
Most COVID-19-related headaches will resolve over time. However, a person who has COVID-19 or has previously had the coronavirus infection should speak with a doctor if they experience the following:
A headache can sometimes signal a medical emergency. A person should go to the emergency room or call 911 if they experience one or more of the following symptoms:
A headache is a common symptom of COVID-19. It may occur as a primary or secondary symptom of the disease. Headaches can also present as a symptom of long COVID.
The treatment for COVID-19-related headaches is the same as that for most headaches unrelated to the disease. Treatment options include over-the-counter or prescription pain relievers, along with natural treatments, such as gentle exercise, massage, and maintaining adequate hydration.
A person should speak with a doctor if they experience persistent or worsening headaches during or following a coronavirus infection.
Most headaches are harmless and disappear on their own or following appropriate treatment. However, some headaches can signal a serious and potentially life threatening medical issue. Anyone who experiences a sudden or severe headache that occurs alongside other concerning symptoms should seek emergency medical attention.
Last medically reviewed on April 28, 2022
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